Screen printing is a way of printing images by forcing print color or pasting a fork through a specially prepared screen block to record a print on a substrate such as tissue paper or the like. It is also called Serigraphy or Mitography.
There are two main types of screens used for screen printing. Temporal screens last for a shorter period of time. They are suitable for recording individual or limited prints on clothing and paper. They are very easy to prepare and do not require much money or effort.
But permanent screens have a very long period of time and if they are taken care of it can be forever. They can be used in printing multiple hundreds and even thousands of prints. Their preparation in comparison to the time-consuming displays requires a lot of effort and money. Examples of permanent screens include photographic screens, lacquer screens and shell screens.
Paper Stencil Screen Preparation This paper stencil screen looks like a lot of stencil preparation, but this is an extension of it. This involves transferring the finished structure to the paper to be used while cutting out the positive areas of the image to be printed out of the paper. The prepared stencil is then attached to the stretched screen by means of a masking tape. Sufficient emissions are left to act as ink reservoirs. The screen is ready for printing.
Preparatory processes in these screen preparation methods are the same. The only difference is the material used to coat the negative areas on the screen that can either be melted wax paint or paint. The finished construction is transferred to the stretched screen. Apply using a brush to melt the wax or thin scissors or varnish to block the negative areas of the structure. Test hole for pin holes by making a test print.
Photographic Screen Preparation The photographic display's preparation involves the use of light in developing or displaying patterns on the screen. Light sources may be natural or artificial. Therefore, there are two main ways of making photographic screens thus the use of the solar energy during the day and the use of the strong fluorescent bulbs in the exposure or protection box.
In the solar method, fill in the hollow or hollow part of the coated screen with a bag of fine sand on a flat wooden board and turn it upside down. The positive part of the paper where the patterns are placed is placed on the front part of the screen and is covered by a piece of cloth. The whole thing is exposed to the solar energy for a few minutes.
When using the development or protection box in the dark room after the screen is coated with the photo emulsion and the sensitizer solution, it will dry. The design is then placed face up on the glass in the shooting field. The front of the dried coated screen is placed on the construction with the inside or the hollow part upward. A bag filled with fine sand or heavy clothes with hinged stone is laid in the hollow part of the screen to ensure a firm contact between the glass plate and the paper with the design and the screen. The lights in the shooting box are switched on for about five minutes.
Correct placement of the screens The artist should carefully pay attention to placing the screen on the substrate or material to be printed. If the screens are misplaced on the substrate, it would result in incorrect pattern detection on designated areas of the substrate. Even if the prints are repeated on the fabric in a particular pattern or arrangement, there will be gaps or disorder in the arrangement.
Sufficient pressure on the suction The pressure applied to the suction should be moderate and well thought out. This is because if the pressure is exercised is smaller, some parts of the screen will not be recorded in print. On the other hand, if a lot of pressure is exerted on the screen, it will result in the fading of patterns on the substrate.
Instant washing of screens The displays used for printing should be washed immediately after printing to avoid blocking of screens. This is due to the fact that when ink remains on the screen, it will stop washing away from the screen, resulting in its blockage. It is advisable to wash the screen immediately after printing with soap or warm water and foam to remove all ink residues.